Technically speaking, the Nobel Prize in Economics is not a true Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prizes were established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel (upon his death) in the categories of physics, chemistry, literature, medicine and peace. The economics prize is actually named the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel and was established and endowed by Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden's central bank, in 1968 on the bank's 300th anniversary. This distinction is mostly irrelevant from a practical perspective, since the prize amounts and the nomination and selection processes are the same for the Economics prize as for the original Nobel Prizes.
The first Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded in 1969 to the Dutch and Norwegian economists Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch, and a complete list of prize recipients can be found here. Only one woman, Elinor Ostrom in 2009, has won a Nobel Prize in Economics.
The most prestigious prize awarded specifically to an American economist (or a least an economist working in the United States at the time) is the John Bates Clark Medal. The John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to whom it considers to be the most accomplished and/or promising economist under the age of forty. The first John Bates Clark Medal was awarded in 1947 to Paul Samuelson, and, whereas the medal used to be awarded every other year, it has been awarded in April of every year since 2009. A complete list of John Bates Clark Medal recipients can be found here.
Because of the age restriction and the prestigious nature of the award, it's only natural that many economists who win the John Bates Clark Medal later go on to win the Nobel Prize in Economics. In fact, about 40 percent of John Bates Clark Medal winners have gone on to win the Nobel Prize, despite the fact that the first Nobel Prize in Economics wasn't awarded until 1969. (Paul Samuelson, the first John Bates Clark Medal recipient, won just the second Nobel Prize in Economics, awarded in 1970.)
One other award that carries a lot of weight in the economics world is the MacArthur Fellowship, better known as a "genius grant." This award is granted by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, which announces generally between 20 and 30 recipients each year. 850 winners have been chosen between June 1981 and September 2011, and each winner receives a no-strings-attached fellowship of $500,000, paid out quarterly over a five-year period.
The MacArthur Fellowship is unique in a number of ways. First, the nominating committee seeks out people in a wide variety of fields rather than focusing on a particular area of study or expertise. Second, the fellowship is awarded to individuals who exhibit a capacity to do creative and meaningful work and is thus an investment in future results rather than simply a reward for past achievement. Third, the nominating process is very secretive and winners are unaware that they are even under consideration until they receive a phone call telling them that they've won.
According to the foundation, 14 economists (or economics-related social scientists) have won MacArthur Fellowships, beginning with Michael Woodford in the inaugural year. A complete list of economists who have won MacArthur Fellowships can be found here. Interestingly, four MacArthur Fellows - Esther Duflo, Kevin Murphy, Matthew Rabin and Emmanuel Saez- have also won the John Bates Clark Medal, but only two- Duflo and Rabin- received the fellowship before the medal. This number may change, however, since some of the fellowship recipients- Roland Fryer, for example- are still under the age of forty.
Despite there being significant overlap among the recipients of these three awards, no economist has achieved the "triple crown" of economics...yet.